1 Moss S. Waller M. Anderson TJ. Cuckle H. Trial Management Group. Randomised controlled trial of mammographic screening in women from age 40: predicted mortality based on surrogate outcome measures. British Journal of Cancer. 2005;92:955-60.

2 Irwig L, Glasziou P, Barratt A, Salked G. (1997). Review of the evidence of mammographic screening in 40-49 year old women. Sydney: NHMRC National Breast Cancer Centre.

3 Outcomes of screening: The estimates of outcomes of screening in this decision aid come from a mathematical model of mammography screening among women aged 40-84 years, based on Australian breast cancer incidence and mortality data. The model has been published in the British Medical Journal and is available free online - Barratt A, Howard K, Irwig L, Salked G, Houssami N. Model of outcomes of screening mammography: information to support informed choices. BMJ. April 2005; 330: 936.

Number of cancers detected, number of recalls for further tests, false reassurance, missed cancers: These data were obtained from statistical reports from BreastScreen Australia services

Breast cancer deaths: Breast cancer deaths: The model assumes that mammography screening reduces the risk of death from breast cancer by 23% in women aged 40-49 years. These estimates come from data from randomized trials of screening and are adjusted to reflect the likely benefit among women who regularly participate in screening. In this decision aid, the number of breast cancer deaths is the number occurring over 10 years.

The model has been developed by staff at the Screening and Test Evaluation Program, School of Public Health, University of Sydney. Full details of the model are available on request from Professor Alex Barratt.

4 Lipkus, IM, Halabi S, Strigo, TS, & Rimer BK. (2000). The impact of abnormal mammograms on psychosocial outcomes and subsequent screening. Psycho-Oncology, 9: 402-410.

5 Gail M, Brinton LA, Byar DP, Corle DK, Green SB, Schairer C, & Mulvihill JJ. (1989). Projecting individualized probabilities of developing breast cancer for white females who are being examined annually. Journal of the National Cancer Institute , 81: 1879-1886.

6 National Cancer Institute Breast Cancer Risk Assessment tool. Available here [Accessed 23rd September 2004].


This Decision Aid was evaluated in a randomised controlled trial. The results of the trial can be found here.

Mathieu E, Barratt A, McGeechan K, Davey H, Howard K, Houssami N. Helping women make choices about mammography screening: An online randomised trial of a decision aid for 40 year old women. Patient Education and Counseling (2010), doi:10.1016/j.pec.2010.01.001